Pathological Anatomy – the unifying discipline of fundamental sciences and clinical practice. This study provides an insight into the changes in the structure of organs, tissues and cells caused by pathological processes and diseases of a human, their aetiology, the mechanisms of formation (pathogenesis) and functional (clinical) importance – which provide basic knowledge for further development of the diagnostic and treatment basics. The study of general (pathological processes) and systemic, or nosological (diseases) pathological anatomy is carried out.
Students of the medical programme acquire the following knowledge of pathological anatomy in years 2 and 3, deepening their knowledge into integrated modules of problem studies: the basics of preclinical studies, reproductive health, fundamentals of neuroscience, immune response and infection, breathing and blood circulation, material absorption and homoeostasis. The Department of Pathological Anatomy is responsible for the Immune Response and Infection Immune Response module.
Students of the Odontology Programme master the necessary knowledge of pathology, the links between the causes and consequences of pathological processes, in order to understand the morphological substrate of pathological processes and diseases and the mechanisms of their occurrence and the clinical importance of the third year.
Students of Medical and Veterinary Genetics and Medical and Veterinary Biochemistry take up the morphological substrate of pathological processes in the second year, delve into the molecular mechanisms and clinical importance of their occurrence, acquire the basics of morphological and molecular diagnostics of tissue changes.
By studying the subject of pathology (consisting of pathological anatomy and pathological physiology) oral hygiene (year 2), nursing and obstetrics (year 1), physiotherapy and occupational therapy (year 2), students get acquainted with the morphological substrate and mechanisms of the general pathological processes and some diseases.
Students of the Medical Programme learn more about the possibilities of pathology diagnosis by studying clinical pathology and forensic medicine in the 4th year.
The fully renovated study base of the Department has a modern equipped audience named after Janina Lašienė for streaming lectures, seminars and tutorial sessions. The practice rooms are equipped with demonstration-consulting microscopes with optical bridges, high-resolution digital cameras and 60’’ monitors and binocular educational microscopes for group and individual student work. A server system for virtual study of histological preparations is installed. Students develop skills in the fundamentals of tissue imaging analysis using Media Cybernetics ImagePro software.
The Department of Pathological Anatomy has a museum of more than 2000 macroscopic preparations, prepared collections of tissue histological preparations using routine and special histochemical painting methods, immunohistochemical and hybridization in situ reactions. All of this enables not only a deeper understanding of pathological processes and structural changes in diseases, but also an understanding of the diagnostic possibilities of modern pathology.
The Department of Pathological Anatomy combines traditional lectures, practice of microscopic and histological preparations and electron studies, observation of autopsy and diagnostic biopsies, and modern technologies – virtual histopathology (telepathology). These are images of the entire histological section (glass), which is studied during the practice work. Their maximum resolution is the same as that of a standard optical microscope for large magnification and is intended not only for independent study of pathology, but also as a freely available and optional alternative to traditional histological preparations on glass panes during practice.
During the study of pathological anatomy, the elements of problem learning have been applied for more than three decades in solving simulated morphological diagnostic tasks consisting of microscopic and histological preparations and electron kits. Special attention is paid to independent work. To this end, the descriptions of all the practice works have been updated.
For students of all study programmes, the educational material (textbook of interactive studies “Fundamental Pathology”, Atlas of Histopathology (Lithuanian and English), instructions on practice, individual parts of the textbook of pathological anatomy, etc.) is digitized and available online.
Studies of Pathology Residency (4 years) and other residency programmes are constantly being conducted in the Department of Pathological Anatomy, where the basics of diagnostics of pathology of various diseases are studied.
The lecturers of the Department teach elective subjects, direct the research work of students and participate in doctoral studies. There is a post-graduate training of doctors.
The lecturers are constantly improving their teaching through the experience of international universities.
Department of Pathological Anatomy lecturers pathology doctors are involved in the implementation of integrated studies of diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of diseases (modern diagnosis of pathology of diseases is part of these studies) according to the profile of the diagnostic tests they perform: Brain tumours, lungs, breast, cervix, digestive tract, tumour and non-tumour lesions of the localisation of the liver, thyroid, skin, etc., using modern methods of pathology diagnostics (molecular and gene expression at the protein level).