Guidelines and examples for providing the references

< Grįžti

For paper in a journal

1. Parkin DM, Clayton D, Black RJ, Masuyer E, Friendl HP, Ivanov E, et al. Childhood-leukaemia in Europe after Chernobyl: 5 year follow-up. Br J Cancer 1996;73:1006-12.

When journal article is referenced, up to six authors should be listed. If there are more than six authors, only the first six should be listed followed by “et al.”.

If article is not in English, the title should be presented in original language, and English translation should be given in parenthesis:

1. Malinauskienė V, Gražulevičienė R. Socialinių darbo veiksnių įtaka miokardo infarkto rizikai tarp 25–64 metų Kauno vyrų. (Social status and risk of myocardial infarction among 25–64 years old male population in Kaunas.) Medicina (Kaunas) 2000;36:217-25.

Chapter in a book

1. Phillips SJ, Whisnant JP. Hypertension and stroke. In: Laragh JH, Brenner BM, editors. Hypertension: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management. 2nd ed. New York: Raven Press; 1995. p. 465-78.

Monographs and books

1. Ringsven MK, Bond D. Gerontology and leadership skills for nurses. 2nd ed. Albany (NY): Delmar Publishers; 1996.

2. Norman LJ, Redfern SJ, editors. Mental health care for elderly people. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1996. Journal article in electronic form

3. Morse SS. Factors in the emergence of infectious diseases. Emerg Infect Dis [serial online] 1995 Jan-Mar [cited 1996 Jun 5]; 1(1): [24 screens]. Available from: URL:

PhD thesis

1. Rokaitė R. Maisto alergenų įtaka ir dietoterapijos reikšmė atopiniu dermatitu sergantiems vaikams. (The influence of food allergens and the value of diet therapy for children with atopic dermatitis.) [dissertation]. Kaunas: KMU; 2006.


Tables should not be embedded in the text but should be presented on a separate page and uploaded separately.

Tables should be numbered with Arabic numerals in the order of citation in the text, and a brief descriptive title should appear above each table. Tables should normally be self-explanatory. Each column should have a heading, and the units of measurement should be given in the heading. Numbers up to four digits should be written without spaces; longer numbers should be spaced in 3-digit groupings, without commas.

Explanatory matter and necessary information should be placed in footnotes (explain all nonstandard abbreviations), and for footnote use superscript letters (not symbols). Use asterisks to indicate statistical significance.


All figures (graphs, charts, photographs, and illustrations) should be of good quality and given on separate pages.

All figures should be numbered with Arabic numerals in the order of their citation in the text and should include a brief title. For figures supplied in parts, please use A, B, C, etc. to label the parts of the figure.

In addition, the journal requires all figures to be provided in electronic format (preferred file formats are TIFF and JPG).

The legends for all figures should be typed out on a separate page with Arabic numerals corresponding to the figures.

The legends should explain the figures in sufficient detail that they could be understood without reference to the text. Symbols, arrows, numbers, or letters used to identify parts of the illustrations should be identified and explained clearly in the legend.

Review articles and theoretical analysis that are not focused on an empirical study, not exceeding

5000–8000 words, should present an update of recent developments in a field being discussed. Preparation of a review article follows the standard format for research articles, with respect to text style, tables, figures, figure legends, and references. A structured abstract up to 250 words describing the need and objective of a review article, methods used for gathering and analysing data, and main conclusions is required, although the subheadings stipulated for research articles do not apply. For those articles, an organising construct may be started instead of a design. Up to 70 references should be included.

Case Reports should consist of clinical cases highlighting uncommon conditions or presentations and should provide information regarding new or unusual aspects of nursing practice, education, or management, which contribute to the existing knowledge. Preparation of case reports follows the standard format for research articles, with respect to text style, figures, tables, and references. The text should not exceed 2000 words and should be divided into the following sections: summary (50 words), introduction, case report(s), and discussion. Number of references should be limited to 10 most recent.

Review process

Once submitted, manuscripts will be quality checked by the editorial office before being sent for double-blind peer review. This process takes one month on average from submission to the initial decision. On acceptance, after any required changes have been made, proofs will normally be sent electronically within 2 weeks, with a request to correct and return them within 5 days. Extensive corrections cannot be made at this time. The paper will then be accepted for publication. These timings are provisional, and do not include author delays.